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Audemars Piguet Royal Oak Offshore
Top
Audemars Piguet Royal Oak Offshore
£10,750
Free shipping
Seller
Charles Martin Watch Company Ltd
 
UK
Rolex Yacht-Master
Top
Rolex Yacht-Master
£16,000
Free shipping
Seller
Chase Hattan
8
UK
Vacheron Constantin ASYMMETRICAL 1972 PRESTIGE DE LA FRANCE  #...
Top
Vacheron Constantin ASYMMETRICAL 1972 PRESTIGE DE LA FRANCE #...
£10,156
Free shipping
Seller
Watch Hunter
 
US
Rolex SS 36mm DATEJUST Slate Dial w/ Box & Papers 16030...
Top
Rolex SS 36mm DATEJUST Slate Dial w/ Box & Papers 16030...
£3,006
Seller
Austins Watches Inc.
85
US
Rolex Day-Date II / President II Black Roman Dial
Top
Rolex Day-Date II / President II Black Roman Dial
£20,237
Seller
Stein Diamonds
5
US
Rolex GMT-Master II 16758, Black Dial, Jubilee w/ Box  &...
Top
Rolex GMT-Master II 16758, Black Dial, Jubilee w/ Box &...
£10,909
Seller
Swiss Wrist
 
US
Bulgari Diagono Regatta Chrono 80% off
Top
Bulgari Diagono Regatta Chrono 80% off
£3,273
Seller
Raffi Boyadjian Watches Inc.
6
US
Hermès Authentic Men's Hermes Clipper Diver CP1.810 44MM...
Top
Hermès Authentic Men's Hermes Clipper Diver CP1.810 44MM...
£2,065
Free shipping
Seller
Luxury Horology
66
US
Rolex Daytona
Top
Rolex Daytona
£13,000
Seller
Swiss Time Online
 
UK
Omega CONSTELLATION 14393 61 SC PIE PAN  561 Vintage Steel Watch
Omega CONSTELLATION 14393 61 SC PIE PAN 561 Vintage Steel Watch
£974
Seller
Stetz & Co. Watches
5
US
Rado D-Star Rattrapante Limited Edition
Rado D-Star Rattrapante Limited Edition
£1,505
Seller
Temporis Aeterni
 
US
Patek Philippe 18k W/G 40th Anniversary Ltd Ed Nautilus...
Top
Patek Philippe 18k W/G 40th Anniversary Ltd Ed Nautilus...
£135,000
Free shipping
Seller
Watches & Jewellery of Bond Street Ltd
60
UK
Rolex 18K/SS  Datejust Black Diamond Dial 36mm Quickset
Top
Rolex 18K/SS Datejust Black Diamond Dial 36mm Quickset
£3,006
Seller
Austins Watches Inc.
85
US
Rolex Explorer II Black Dial Ref. 16570 (Only Box)
Top
Rolex Explorer II Black Dial Ref. 16570 (Only Box)
£3,359
Seller
Watch Center London
307
UK
Rolex Submariner 16613 No Holes Case, Blue Dial Box & Papers
Top
Rolex Submariner 16613 No Holes Case, Blue Dial Box & Papers
£5,943
Seller
Swiss Wrist
 
US
Breguet Marine
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Breguet Marine
£6,019
Seller
Noblesse LP
 
UK
Rolex Daytona JULY 2017
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Rolex Daytona JULY 2017
£14,500
Seller
WatchTraderUK
 
UK
Rolex Sea-Dweller Deepsea
Top
Rolex Sea-Dweller Deepsea
£9,650
Seller
Swiss Time Online
 
UK
Omega 1968 SEAMASTER 300 BIG TRIANGLE 165.024 w/ 1039+516 Vintage
Omega 1968 SEAMASTER 300 BIG TRIANGLE 165.024 w/ 1039+516 Vintage
£12,413
Seller
Stetz & Co. Watches
5
US
Perrelet Jumping Hour
Perrelet Jumping Hour
£1,128
Seller
Temporis Aeterni
 
US
Rolex Day-Date Diamond Mens 36mm 18K Yellow Gold Watch
Top
Rolex Day-Date Diamond Mens 36mm 18K Yellow Gold Watch
£9,995
Seller
WT Time Pieces
21
UK
Rolex SS 36mm DATEJUST Black Diamond Dial - 16014 Quickset 1980s
Top
Rolex SS 36mm DATEJUST Black Diamond Dial - 16014 Quickset 1980s
£2,855
Seller
Austins Watches Inc.
85
US
Rolex Submariner Date 16610 Complete Set Box & Papers...
Top
Rolex Submariner Date 16610 Complete Set Box & Papers...
£5,495
Seller
Vintage & Prestige
13
UK
Rolex Vintage Rolex GMT-Master 1675 w/ Rootbeer Dial & Bezel
Top
Rolex Vintage Rolex GMT-Master 1675 w/ Rootbeer Dial & Bezel
£5,266
Seller
Swiss Wrist
 
US
Vacheron Constantin Overseas Chronograph
Top
Vacheron Constantin Overseas Chronograph
£8,553
Seller
Noblesse LP
 
UK
Rolex Daytona 116508 Green Dial
Top
Rolex Daytona 116508 Green Dial
£23,500
Seller
WatchTraderUK
 
UK
Rolex Explorer II
Top
Rolex Explorer II
£5,400
Seller
Swiss Time Online
 
UK
Audemars Piguet Royal Oak Offshore Chronograph
Top
Audemars Piguet Royal Oak Offshore Chronograph
£16,495
Seller
JPA Watch Company Ltd
6
UK
Franck Muller Crazy Hours
Franck Muller Crazy Hours
£9,780
Seller
Temporis Aeterni
 
US
Breitling Chronomat Evolution Mens 44mm 18K Gold Watch
Top
Breitling Chronomat Evolution Mens 44mm 18K Gold Watch
£9,995
Seller
WT Time Pieces
21
UK
Rolex 2001 SS 36mm DATEJUST White Roman Unpolished Box &...
Top
Rolex 2001 SS 36mm DATEJUST White Roman Unpolished Box &...
£3,382
Seller
Austins Watches Inc.
85
US
Jaeger-LeCoultre Master Ultra Thin Moon White Gold
Top
Jaeger-LeCoultre Master Ultra Thin Moon White Gold
£13,318
Seller
WatchesofMayfair.com
178
UK
Rolex 16710 GMT-Master II - No Holes Case w/ Error Dial - RARE
Top
Rolex 16710 GMT-Master II - No Holes Case w/ Error Dial - RARE
£5,868
Seller
Swiss Wrist
 
US
Hublot King Power Split-Second Power Reserve Black Magic
Top
Hublot King Power Split-Second Power Reserve Black Magic
£8,418
Seller
Noblesse LP
 
UK
Omega Seamaster DeVille Automatic Date 14k Gold on Bracelet 1966
Top
Omega Seamaster DeVille Automatic Date 14k Gold on Bracelet 1966
£3,000
Seller
Antique Watch Company
 
UK
Rolex 18k Day-Date, Diamond/Sapphire String Dial Ref: 18238
Top
Rolex 18k Day-Date, Diamond/Sapphire String Dial Ref: 18238
£12,450
Free shipping
Seller
Tempvs Ltd
45
UK
Rolex GMT-Master II 2015
Top
Rolex GMT-Master II 2015
£6,000
Seller
JPA Watch Company Ltd
6
UK
Zenith El Primero Striking 10th Limited Edition
Zenith El Primero Striking 10th Limited Edition
£9,780
Seller
Temporis Aeterni
 
US
Sevenfriday M-Series M1/01 RRP £1115
Top
Sevenfriday M-Series M1/01 RRP £1115
£550
Seller
The Watch Directory
35
UK
Rolex 18K/SS DATEJUST Custom Silver Diamond Dial - 36mm Quickset
Top
Rolex 18K/SS DATEJUST Custom Silver Diamond Dial - 36mm Quickset
£2,780
Seller
Austins Watches Inc.
85
US
Jaeger-LeCoultre Master Compressor Chronograph - Stainless Steel
Top
Jaeger-LeCoultre Master Compressor Chronograph - Stainless Steel
£6,529
Seller
WatchesofMayfair.com
178
UK
Breguet Marine Chronograph - 18k white gold
Top
Breguet Marine Chronograph - 18k white gold
£15,950
Seller
Tempo and Time Ltd
9
UK
Breguet Marine 5827 Chronograph
Top
Breguet Marine 5827 Chronograph
£12,413
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Noblesse LP
 
UK
Rolex Lady-Datejust Champagne Diamond Dial 18K Gold B&P...
Top
Rolex Lady-Datejust Champagne Diamond Dial 18K Gold B&P...
£3,895
Free shipping
Seller
WT Time Pieces
21
UK
Ulysse Nardin 18k White Gold Ulysse Nardin Sonata Cathedral,...
Top
Ulysse Nardin 18k White Gold Ulysse Nardin Sonata Cathedral,...
£17,500
Free shipping
Seller
Tempvs Ltd
45
UK
Omega Seamaster 300m Automatic Co-Axial 212.30.41.20.03.001
Top
Omega Seamaster 300m Automatic Co-Axial 212.30.41.20.03.001
£2,450
Seller
JPA Watch Company Ltd
6
UK
Rolex Day-Date 40
Top
Rolex Day-Date 40
£24,500
Seller
WatchTraderUK
 
UK
Rolex Submariner Date
Top
Rolex Submariner Date
£4,750
Free shipping
Seller
Chase Hattan
8
UK
Rolex SS 36mm DATEJUST Electric Blue Diamond Quickset 16014 model
Top
Rolex SS 36mm DATEJUST Electric Blue Diamond Quickset 16014 model
£2,930
Seller
Austins Watches Inc.
85
US
Rolex Submariner Date 16800 - Box & Part Papers - Perfect...
Top
Rolex Submariner Date 16800 - Box & Part Papers - Perfect...
£5,995
Seller
Time Rediscovered Ltd
6
UK
Rolex Deepsea
Top
Rolex Deepsea
£7,395
Free shipping
Seller
Charles Martin Watch Company Ltd
 
UK
A. Lange & Söhne Richard Lange Platinum
Top
A. Lange & Söhne Richard Lange Platinum
£17,303
Seller
Noblesse LP
 
UK
Roger Dubuis Excalibur 45mm Mens Steel Watch
Top
Roger Dubuis Excalibur 45mm Mens Steel Watch
£6,999
Free shipping
Seller
WT Time Pieces
21
UK
Zenith El Primero Range Rover
Top
Zenith El Primero Range Rover
£5,920
Free shipping
Seller
WatchesofMayfair.com
178
UK
Omega CK 2374 Vintage Watch | Cal 30.10 auto | 35mm
Omega CK 2374 Vintage Watch | Cal 30.10 auto | 35mm
£523
Seller
Stetz & Co. Watches
5
US
Rolex Daytona 2017
Top
Rolex Daytona 2017
£20,000
Seller
WatchTraderUK
 
UK
Rolex GMT PCG
Top
Rolex GMT PCG
£13,750
Free shipping
Seller
The Watch Collector Ltd.
15
UK
Rolex Submariner Date
Top
Rolex Submariner Date
£5,500
Free shipping
Seller
Chase Hattan
8
UK
Omega Seamaster 300m Automatic Co-Axial 212.30.41.20.01.003
Top
Omega Seamaster 300m Automatic Co-Axial 212.30.41.20.01.003
£2,395
Seller
JPA Watch Company Ltd
6
UK
Rolex Submariner
Top
Rolex Submariner
£4,995
Free shipping
Seller
Charles Martin Watch Company Ltd
 
UK
Franck Muller Perpetual Calendar Chronograph
Top
Franck Muller Perpetual Calendar Chronograph
£11,510
Seller
Noblesse LP
 
UK
Breguet Type XX - XXI - XXII Mens Steel Watch
Top
Breguet Type XX - XXI - XXII Mens Steel Watch
£6,495
Free shipping
Seller
WT Time Pieces
21
UK

Automatic Watches: Self-Winding Mechanical Timepieces

Automatic watches are powered by the natural motion of your wrist while you wear them. This type of watch has a rich history reaching back to the 18th century. Today, countless brands produce their own automatic calibers for their watches.

Highlights

  • Automatically wound by the natural movements of your arm
  • Environmentally-friendly: No batteries to produce or throw away
  • The Rolex Oyster Perpetual is one of the most famous automatic watches
  • John Harwood is considered the inventor of the automatic wristwatch
  • Automatic watches available in almost every price range

Automatic Watches: Self-Winding Timepieces

Automatic watches fall under the larger umbrella term of mechanical watches. They offer a key advantage over manual timepieces: They wind automatically via the movement of the wearer's arm. An oscillating mass inside the caliber is responsible for winding the spring. Today, this is in most cases a winding rotor. It is flexibly mounted so that gravity pulls it towards the center. When you're wearing the watch and move your wrist, the rotor moves and gives the caliber new energy. Automatic watches don't require batteries, making mechanical watches comparably more environmentally friendly than battery-powered quartz watches.
Automatic watches are available from almost every famous watch manufacturer in all price ranges. Less expensive models are often powered by base calibers made by the ébauche manufacturers ETA, Soprod, or Sellita. Various manufacturers use these calibers in a more or less reworked form in their watches. These calibers even power the watches made by famous brands such as Breitling and TAG Heuer. However, both manufacturers have developed their own in-house movements as well.
Rolex and Patek Philippe are some of the most well-known watch manufacturers. Unlike many other brands, these two Geneva-based manufacturers don't outsource base calibers. Instead, they use their own. For example, Rolex's caliber 3130 is considered very robust, reliable, and precise. These qualities and more make the caliber one of the best automatic movements on the market; it powers Rolex watches such as the Submariner. Since Rolex produces their watches almost entirely in-house, production is costlier. This results in higher prices for automatic watches with in-house movements.

Buying Tips

If you're searching for an automatic watch, the hard part is actually choosing one. Should it be large or small, simple or extravagant, affordable or expensive? The selection is ample for every taste and budget. Pre-owned automatic watches from Citizen, Seiko, or Swatch are available for around 50 euros. These watches often only have three hands for the hours, minutes, and seconds. Some also have a date or even day/date display.
In the price range between 100 and 200 euros, you can find diverse new automatic watches from brands like Seiko or Fossil. Pre-owned watches from long-established manufacturers such as Tissot, Hamilton, or Longines cost up to 500 euros. The situation is similar in the 1,000 euros and under price range, though here you can also find new models from the German brand Marcello C.
In the 1,000 euro price range, you can find pre-owned Omega or Breitling watches. New automatic three-hand watches are available from Oris, Raymond Weil, or Rado.
However, if you're looking for an automatic chronograph, you need to adjust your budget accordingly. A pre-owned automatic chronograph costs at least 500 euros; this applies to watches from brands such as Tissot or Hamilton. New chronographs cost a few hundred euros more, around 800 euros. These watches are often powered by ETA's Valjoux 7750, which is considered one of the most successful automatic chronograph calibers in the world.
If you're searching for a new automatic Rolex, you need to plan on spending at least 3,000 euros. You can purchase the introductory model, Oyster Perpetual, for this price. You can occasionally find pre-owned vintage watches from this Genevan manufacturer for less than 1,000 euros. The Submariner, one of the first and most famous diving watches in the world, is available pre-owned for around 4,100 euros. New, it costs around 5,600 euros. Rolex's chronograph, the Daytona, is available for around 7,500 euros.
The most expensive automatic watches are from brands such as Audemars Piguet and Patek Philippe. These watches are often made of platinum or 18-karat gold and feature countless diamonds on their dial and/or case. At times, these watches are also incredibly expensive as they're rare vintage watches coveted by collectors. Prices over 1 million euros are not too rare when it comes to these watches.

The Technology Behind Automatic Watches

The mainspring of an automatic watch is, as the name suggests, automatically wound by the movement itself. The mainspring is wound, becomes tense, and stores energy. This happens through the natural movements of the wearer's arm when the watch is on his or her wrist. This mechanism eliminates the need to manually wind the mainspring. Instead, an oscillating mass - often the rotor - winds the mainspring. Gravity causes the flexibly mounted rotor to move towards the center and a gear-train transfers the energy from the rotor's movement to the barrel. Viewed from a physics standpoint, the mechanism converts kinetic energy into potential energy.
There are automatic movements that wind in one or both directions. Bi-directional winding movements have so-called reverser gears. These ensure that the rotor winds the barrel in both directions. Uni-directional winding movements actually wind bidirectionally, but the mainspring is only wound in one direction. Both variants have a reduction gear which converts the fast movements of the rotor into slower movements with more torque. The end of the mainspring is not directly connected to the barrel so that it doesn't snap off when it's fully wound. The outer end of the spring is outfitted with a bridle, which keeps the pressure on the mainspring's outermost coil. When not fully wound, that pressure allows the outer end of the mainspring to be caught in a notch in the barrel wall. Once the spring is fully wound, it moves along to the next notch.
Automatic watches have many advantages: They're comfortable, environmentally-friendly, and usually more precise. This improved precision is due to the mainspring, which is always tense and has a more constant torque than mainsprings in hand-wound calibers. This has a positive effect on the amplitude. The amplitude is the balance wheel's degree of rotation and refers to the wheel's maximum rotation angle between equilibrium and a reversal point.

Technical Details of Automatic Watches

  • The winding rotor winds the mainspring in the barrel
  • Advantages: no manual winding required, environmentally-friendly, more precise
  • Uni-directional and bi-directional winding movements

The Origins of Automatic Watches

Automatic winding is one of the most important and long-lasting innovations in the history of watchmaking and the mechanism is one of the most widespread complications in use today.
Today's automatic watches can trace their origin back to the year 1729. Abraham-Louis Perrelet improved the winding mechanism of pocket watches in the 18th century. A small key was required to wind a movement before this improvement. Since the key was never there when you needed it, winding mechanisms that didn't require a key were in high demand. Perrelet wanted to invent a self-winding pocket watch. In 1770, he introduced his pedometer watch after countless attempts. The watch had an oscillating weight which teetered back and forth as the wearer walked. The motion caused the oscillating weight to tense the mainspring. Perrelet also developed a caliber with a winding rotor which swiveled above the movement. With these innovations, the groundwork for today's automatic watches was laid.
Refined men carried their pocket watches tucked away safely in their jacket, vest, or pants. The timepieces barely moved while in their pockets, which meant that the oscillating mass didn't have enough energy to wind the mainspring. The crown-wind method solved the key-wind problem in the mid-19th century, making the automatic pocket watch superfluous.

The First Automatic Wristwatches

The French watchmaker Léon Leroy was also a pioneer in the development of automatic watches. He presented his first automatic wristwatch in 1922. Some of these watches even had a date display. However, Leroy was far away from being able to mass produce a series.
The British watchmaker John Harwood lead automatic wristwatches to series production. He began working on automatic movements in 1922. Two years later, he patented his work, paving the way for the first series-produced automatic wristwatches.
Rolex's Oyster Perpetual was one of the first automatic wristwatches. Rolex introduced the watch to the market in 1931. It's one of the few early models that has lasted over the years and is still produced today. The principle behind Oyster Perpetual's winding rotor is at the heart of every modern automatic wristwatch.